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A total of 70 members answered, 97.1% from European countries, these were Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Lithuania, Malta, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and 2.9%from a neighbor country this is Azerbaijan. The 60.7% of participants reported the existence of patient safety standards that incorporate some form of care for professionals who experience the second victim symptoms. The 37.1% of researchers involved in this COST Action were conducting studies or research underway on second victims or related issues (15 countries). The 30% of the participants were being involved in the design of interventions aimed at addressing the second victim phenomenon. At the time of this survey the 42.9% of participants were participating in the implementation in health centers of any intervention aimed at addressing the second victim phenomenon.

Patient safety and second victims’ topics  by partners of the ERNST Consortium (COST Action 19113)  by county

Study TopicsCountry estudies: pilot study, assessment, analysis, research project, review, action, guidance document and public views
Frequency, nature, and causes of adverse eventsDenmark, France, Italy, Lithuania*, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and The Netherlands
Nature and frequency of second victim responses. Psychosocial risks in the workplace.
Well-being and resilience at work
Belgium, Croatia, Germany, Italy with the participation of Belgium and Turkey, Slovakia and Spain
Second victim phenomenon and patient safety curricula in students and residentsBelgium, Germany*, Finland and Serbia
Literature reviews on second victims and management of adverse eventsBelgium*, Italy and others, Finland, Portugal and Spain
Good practices and recommendations after an adverse eventFinland, Portugal and Spain, Germany*, France*, Italy and Switzerland*
Patient safety culturePortugal and Norway*
Legal frameworkBelgium, Germany*, Iceland, Ireland* and Spain
The seconds victims of COVID-19Belgium, Germany, Slovakia and Spain
Terminology (appropriateness of the term second victim)Ireland
Design or implementation of support programs, interventions, and techniques to enhance resilience in stressful situationBelgium and The Netherland*, Denmark and Spain
Defensive medicine and second victims’ phenomenonItaly with the participation of Belgium and Italy and Turkey
Patient safety perceptionsSpain and Sweden
Open disclosureBelgium and Spain
Aggressive behavior of patients toward healthcare professionalsIsrael
* no avaliable data yet

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