The culture of blame or shame experienced after an error does not contribute to learning from these incidents, which limits the possibilities of avoiding the repetition of risky situations for patients. Leadership styles and team dynamics that allow for self-criticism and discussion on how to do things better (psychological safety) also influence the experience of patients and healthcare workers.
The existence of a national patient safety strategy or plan contributes to a better understanding of the experience of patients (their relatives) and professionals involved in safety incidents and in the most risky and complex situations involving a high level of stress.
The legal framework and in particular professional liability legislation is another key element to be considered. The same applies to options for compensating patients who have suffered a severe adverse event.